Semen Analysis

Semen also known as seminal fluid is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa. It is spcreted by the gonads (sexual glands) and other sexual organs of male or hermaphroditic and can fertilize female ova.

The male reproductive fluid is a meecoid, milky, white fluid consisting of spermatozoa. The fluid that is released through the penis during organism. Semen is made up of fluid and sperm. The fluid comes from the prostate seminal vesicles.

Collection of Semen:

Do not have any sexual activity for at least two days but not more than five days before obtaining the semen sample.

Semen should be collected in a steel nontoxic plastic jar provided by the laboratory, other containers are not acceptable.

Most clinics prefer that the specimen be collected in the office. If possible private collection rooms are usually available. Wash and dry your hands prior to recommended cleaning the penis followed with rinsing and drying to remove any soap or water.

Lubricants should not be used unless directed by a physician.

Follow the clinic instructions for labelling and transporting the specimen. It is critical to follow these instructions carefully. Keep the jar closed tightly to prevent leakage. Let the lab know if any of the specimen was lost or spilled and whether you have been taking any medications including herbal remedies.

Abstinence days:

3-5 days

Macroscopic Examination:


The liquefaction is the process when the gel formed by proteins from the seminal vesicles is broken up and the semen becomes more liquid. It normally takes less than 20 minutes for the sample to change from a thick gel into a liquid.


The average volume of semen produced at ejaculation is 2 to 5ml volumes consistently less than 1.5 ml (hypospermia) or more than 5.5ml (hyperspermia) are probably abnormal. Lower volumes many occur after very frequent ejaculation and higher volumes are seen after prolonged abstinence.

Semen Colour:

Healthy semen is usually white or whitish gray in colour. If your semen changes colour you may wonder if something is wrong with your health. Yellow semen may be nothing to worry about, but it may also be a sign of an underlying medical conditions.

Semen PH:

According to one lab test manual normal PH range is 7.1-8.0. who criteria specify normal as 7.2-7.8. Acidic ejaculate (lower PH value) may indicate one or both of the seminal vesicle are blocked. A basic ejaculate (higher PH value) may indicate a infection.

Semen Viscosity:

Viscosity measures the seminal fluids resistance to flow. High viscosity may interface with determination of sperm motility concentration and antibody coating of spermatozoa. Normally semen coagulates upon ejaculation and usually liquefies within 15-20 minutes.

Total Sperm count:

A normal sperm count ranges from 15 millions sperms to more than 200 millions sperm per millilitre (ml) of semen. Anything less than 15 millions sperm per millilitre or 39 million sperm per ejaculate is considered low.

Total sperm in ejaculate: 39-928 millions

Sperm concentration: 15-259 millions/ml.

Sperm morphology : 4-48%

Ejaculate volume : 1.5-7.6 ml


When it comes to sperm motility for an ejaculate sample to be considered normal at least 40 percent of the sperm should be motile or moving. This can include non-progressive motility.

i)Rapid motile ii)Sluggish motile iii)Non-Progressive iv)Non-Motile

Rapid motile(A):

Progressive motility refers to sperm that are swimming in a mostly straight line or in very large circle.

Sluggish motile(B):

Healthy sperm motility is defined as sperm with forward progression of at least 25 micrometer per second. If a man has poor sperm mobility it is called asthenospermia or Asthenozoospermia…slow or sluggish progressive motility which is defined as anything less than 5 micrometers per second.

Non progressive motile(C):

Progressive motility refers to sperm that are swimming in a mostly straight line or large circles. Non progressive motility refers to sperm that do not travel in straight lines or that swim in very tight circles.

Non motile sperms:

Sperms motility describes the way sperm move. Non progressive motility refers to sperm that do not travel in straight lines or that swim in very tight circles. For the sperm to get through the cervical mucus to fertilize a women’s egg. They need to have progressive motility of at least 25 micrometers a second.

Morphology of sperms:

Sperm morphology in the context of a semen analysis refers to the size and shape of the sperm in a given semen sample. You want at least 4% of sperm to be a normal shape. Otherwise, you could have fertility problems because of abnormal sperm morphology.

  • Normal morphology of sperms
  • Abnormal morphology of sperms

Normal morphology of sperms:

The precise range can vary but typically a normal or healthy sperm morphology range is between 4 and 14 percent NF. A score below 4 percent may mean it takes longer than normal to achive pregnancy.

Abnormal morphology of sperms:

Abnormal sperm morphology means that too many of the sperm in a sample have more than one tail or a crooked head. This matters because having an abnormal shape might make it difficult for them to penetrate an egg. Abnormal sperm morphology may lead to male infertility.

Other Cells:(Semen Analysis)

Pus cells:

Some white blood cells in the semen is normal however many pus cells suggest the presence of an infection.

Epithelial cells:

Sometimes even debris and cells can be found in the sample. Debris such as epithelial cells is commonly found in small quantities as well as WBCs.

Red blood cells:

There may be some other cells in the ejaculate most notably white blood cells (lymphocytes) red blood cells (erythrocytes) or immature sperm cells. Erythrocytes are distinctively red in colour small and without a nucleus their presence is called haemospermia and indicates infection or trauma.

White blood cells:

Sometimes even debris and cells can be found in the sample. White blood cells in semen is not an issue. Unless there is the presence of more than 1 million white blood cells per millilitre of semen.



When all the spermatozoal parameters are normal together with normal seminal plasma WBCs and there is no agglutination.


Fewer than 50% spermatozoa with forward progression categories (a) and (b) or fewer than 25% spermatozoa with category (a) movement.


When sperm concentration is <20 millions/ml.


Fewer than 50% spermatozoa with normal morphology.(shape defects)

Oligo Astheno:


Signifies disturbance of all the three variables. Low sperm count.(Combination of only two prefixes may also be used).


A condition in which the spermatozoa in seminal fluid are dead or motionless.


No spermatozoa in the ejaculate.


No ejaculate.

Queens Fertility Center

Queens fertility center started in the year 2012 as a joint venture by Dr.Nirmala Vijaykumar and Dr. Dahlia Bharath.
The aim is to provide high quality fertility services at an affordable cost to all sections of the society.

Location: 120, Trivandrum Road, Opposite V.O.C Stadium, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli,
TamilNadu. Pincode – 627002.

Mobile: 9629675133 | LandLine: 0462-2574033, 0462-2575033

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